Harris VK, Tuddenham JF, and Sadiq SA. Degenerative Neurological and Neuromuscular Disease. 2017; 7: 19-29.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the brain and spinal
cord that is associated with chronic inflammation leading to demyelination and neurodegeneration.
With the recent increase in the number of available therapies for MS, optimal treatment
will be based on a personalized approach determined by an individual patient’s prognosis and
treatment risks. An integral part of such therapeutic decisions will be the use of molecular
biomarkers to predict disability progression, monitor ongoing disease activity, and assess
treatment response. This review describes current published findings within the past 3 years
in biomarker research in MS, specifically highlighting recent advances in the validation of
cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers such as neurofilaments (light and heavy chains), chitinases
and chitinase 3-like proteins, soluble surface markers of innate immunity, and oligoclonal
immunoglobulin M antibodies. Current research in circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of MS
is also discussed. Continued validation and testing will be required before MS biomarkers are
routinely applied in a clinical setting.